Saturday, March 28, 2020
Introduction This paper is aimed at discussing the way in which TFD (Theatre for development) is used in Swaziland where people have to struggle with such difficulties as HIV pandemic, poverty, inequality, and sexual abuse of women. The use of TFD workshops is helpful for promoting good qualities of the community and highlighting many of the social problems. Moreover, this approach is critical for understanding the underlying causes of difficulties that people can encounter on a daily basis.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Drama for Development in Africa specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This method has already been adopted in various African countries such as Zimbabwe, Nigeria, or Kenya. Volunteers and social workers began to apply these techniques three decades ago. Yet, in Swaziland, this practice is relative new. Thus, it is necessary to determine whether these TFD workshops correspond to the principles discus sed during the class. Overall, it is possible to argue that these performances can increase peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness about the social problems affecting their communities. Apart from that, they encourage people to change some aspects of their behavior and re-evaluate many of their worldviews and stereotypes. Yet, they do not prompt the spectators to examine conflicting arguments or views. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to the empowerment of individuals, especially women who are usually underprivileged both social and economically. So, the principles of TFD are only partly followed. These are the main questions that should be discussed more closely. TFD workshops in Swaziland and the main principles of this approach At first, one should focus the transformative effects of TFD. To some degree, it is aimed at changing some of the beliefs and values of individuals. This is one of the main principles that should be kept in mind. These people should believe that they are able to bring improvements into the live of the community. At present, the workshops, which include both songs and plays, increase peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness about the risks of HIV infection. This task is critical for reducing the pandemic of this disease in this country. This is one of the most acute problems that Swaziland currently faces. This issue is addressed during the Siphocosini Youth Group TFD Workshop. In particular, these people show that HIV patients can be victimized by the society. In most cases, they are marginalized by others. As a result, the spread of this disease is not reduced in any way. However, there is a significant limitation. In particular, this TFD performance does not show how individuals should act in order to minimize the risk of HIV transmission and make sure that children are not exposed to this threat. They only speak about the shortage of financial resources or lack of governmental attention to this problem, but they do not show how peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life styles should change or what ethical decisions that they should take. This question is not examined during this workshop. This shortcoming should not be disregarded because TFD workshops are primarily aimed at changing the ethical decisions of individuals, rather than entire societies. Certainly, this process is very time-consuming, but it is vital for bringing improvements into the lives of people. In a country like Swaziland, the use of strategy can support the needs of many individuals and groups. This is one of the issues that can be singled out.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, it is vital to speak about conscientisation which is also an important element of TFD. This process means that a person is encouraged to think critically and place themselves in the position of other people. This activity is also critical for brining improvements into the life of the communi ty because individuals are less likely to harm others if they fully understand the problem encountered by others. This issue is addressed by TFD practitioners in Swaziland. In particular, many young people in this country create plays which show that people with HIV may be the victims of rape, and they are usually treated only as outcasts by their neighbors or even relatives. This is one of the details that should be taken into account. Overall, conscientisation is important for demonstrating that marginalization of people creates a vicious circle that prevents a society from achieving progress. This issue is particularly important for Swaziland where the spread of this disease can be explained by peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to support people who have HIV. The main goal of conscientisation is to promote empathy or understanding the feelings of others because in such a way, communities can support underprivileged individuals who are not usually able to voice their discontent with t he policies of the government or existing social norms. In turn, TFD workshops prompt many people to put themselves in the position of these individuals. Moreover, one should pay attention to the active participation of spectators in performances because effective TFD workshops should be based on this principle. In particular, the viewers should not isolate themselves from people who are portrayed in the plays. This is one of the goals that can be attained with the help of TFD. In particular, practitioners of TFD should prompt the audience to express their views on a particular problem and offer their recommendations or suggestions. This is one of the aspects that can be distinguished. This argument is particularly relevant if one speaks about Zibonele TFD workshop. People, who organized this performance, presented a certain story and encouraged viewers to provide their recommendations to the actors. The audience also participated in this performance by responding to the questions t hat the actors posed. For example, some members of the audience said people should not be afraid of taking HIV tests because it is not possible to turn a blind eye to this threat. Moreover, they noted that people should not conceal their HIV status from their relatives because in this way, a person could only contribute to the spread of HIV and AIDs in the country.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Drama for Development in Africa specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To a great extent, this strategy encourages the viewers to re-evaluate some of their perceptions on the norms of behavior. For instance, Swaziland, young people are often reluctant to speak about their HIV status. In turn, the practitioners of TFD in Swaziland were able to change their attitudes toward this problem. Thus, these workshops fully comply with this principle of TFD. This is one of the points that can be made. Another important issue is that TFD should put to an internalized oppression. Many people do not have the authority to address social problems. People, who practice TFD in Swaziland, attempt to reach this objective. Yet, some of their strategies can be questioned. For instance, there are several performances, which can show why many people become exposed to the risks of HIV. In particular, the actors highlight the importance of using the services of professional medical workers, rather than healers who are more likely to expose people to put the health of patients at risks. Additionally, these plays show that Swazi women are exposed to the threat of rape. More importantly, this phenomenon is not regarded as something outrageous. However, the practitioners of TFD do not prompt women to depart from conventional gender roles according to which they have to accept the authority of males without any question. They are not encouraged to become more independent. In other words, the developmental needs of these women are not properly examined. This is one of the drawbacks that can be singled out. This task should be an important element of TFD workshops, especially in a country like Swaziland. Thus, the organizers of TFD workshops need to pay more attention to this problem while developing their future strategies. Conflict resolution is another element which is important for TFD. Such workshops are supposed to show how people, who have conflicting values or priorities, can resolve their disagreements. In order to attain this goal, one should present the views of conflicting people and prompt these people put in the position of one another. However, this goal was not attained by the performers. For instance, they did not prompt men and women to discuss the most significant family problems such as abuse, stigmatization of many women, or absence of employment opportunities.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By engaging the spectators into this discussion, TFD practitioners can help people understand many social or family conflicts. This is one of the details that should not be disregarded by social workers or other people who want to improve the living conditions in various Swazi communities. This principle of TFD is useful for challenging many of the conventions and stereotypes that exist in the community. One can say that Swaziland is a country which has to struggle with many economic, political, and social problems. They can be attributed to various factors such as the functioning of governmental organizations or economic inequalities. However, it is not possible to overlook behavioral norms adopted in this country because individuals become alienated from others. The five elements of TFD are useful for addressing many problems such as the marginalization and victimization of women. These are the main difficulties that should be considered by community leaders, social workers, and p olicy-makers who should focus on the factors that slow down the development of Swazi society. Conclusion Overall, this discussion suggests that the adoption of TFD can help many communities in Swaziland. In particular, this method is important for understanding the experiences of people who can struggle with poverty, discrimination, or ostracism. Moreover, such workshops should prompt to evaluate their behavior and identify the most appropriate course of action. TFD organized in Swaziland attain these objectives. Yet, there are certain shortcomings that should not be disregarded. First of all, these workshops do not emphasize the need to resolve or at least explain existing conflicts or disagreements. As a result, people are not able to place themselves in the position of others. Secondly, more attention should be paid to the empowerment of individuals who are often treated as pariahs by others. These are the main arguments that can be put forward. This essay on Drama for Development in Africa was written and submitted by user Aubrie F. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
In this paper I will try and relate the ideas of two great European thinkers back to what have discussed so far in class. Both Marx and Weber saw the existing system of capitalism during their time, that is still in existence today, was based off the idea that the individual is an autonomous unit which lacks a connection to society which effects its progression and evolution. I will discuss how both of them saw the possibility of the individual becoming an integral part of society, one piece of a puzzle, and how this change in the definition or the perception of the individual could lead to the possibility of the dissolution of Capitalism as was seen then and still persists today. The question is whether the individual will ever fully see it in their best interest to perceive themselves as one piece of a large and elaborate system where everything is interconnected. Where they would base their actions off of what is best for society as whole and not just themselves. Or whether t he autonomous individual will thrive right along with the capitalist ideas that are still being taught in school. Marx and Weber may disagree about the rise of classes in a capitalist society, but they do have their similarities. Marx felt that history was based on the conflict between classes and this conflict would cause the downfall of capitalism. Ã¢â¬ Hitherto, every form of society has been based, as we have already seen, on the antagonism of oppressing and oppressed classes.Ã¢â¬ (Marx-Engels Reader P.483) Weber does not agree that class conflict is what defines history, but he does say that a class, though not being a community, has the possibility for producing societal action. People of a community or group may have individual interests, but they put those aside to work as a whole. When individuals act in a societal movement they may do different things, but they are acting in cooperation because in the end it will serve in their individual interests.... Free Essays on Alienation Free Essays on Alienation In this paper I will try and relate the ideas of two great European thinkers back to what have discussed so far in class. Both Marx and Weber saw the existing system of capitalism during their time, that is still in existence today, was based off the idea that the individual is an autonomous unit which lacks a connection to society which effects its progression and evolution. I will discuss how both of them saw the possibility of the individual becoming an integral part of society, one piece of a puzzle, and how this change in the definition or the perception of the individual could lead to the possibility of the dissolution of Capitalism as was seen then and still persists today. The question is whether the individual will ever fully see it in their best interest to perceive themselves as one piece of a large and elaborate system where everything is interconnected. Where they would base their actions off of what is best for society as whole and not just themselves. Or whether t he autonomous individual will thrive right along with the capitalist ideas that are still being taught in school. Marx and Weber may disagree about the rise of classes in a capitalist society, but they do have their similarities. Marx felt that history was based on the conflict between classes and this conflict would cause the downfall of capitalism. Ã¢â¬ Hitherto, every form of society has been based, as we have already seen, on the antagonism of oppressing and oppressed classes.Ã¢â¬ (Marx-Engels Reader P.483) Weber does not agree that class conflict is what defines history, but he does say that a class, though not being a community, has the possibility for producing societal action. People of a community or group may have individual interests, but they put those aside to work as a whole. When individuals act in a societal movement they may do different things, but they are acting in cooperation because in the end it will serve in their individual interests....
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Desiderius Erasmus - Essay Example It is a logical philosophy which is based on human beings belief with regard to dignity, derive information from scientific principles and gain the relevant motivation from human compassion and hope (Fowler 139). Most humanist have a common belief which is based on individual freedoms and rights but also believed that social cooperation, mutual respect and individual responsibility are equally important. In addition, they believe that the problems bedevilling society can only be solved by the people themselves which can improve the overall quality of life for everyone. In this way, the humanist maintains the positivity from the inspiration they acquire in their daily activities, natural world, culture and various forms of art. They are also believed that every individual has only one life to live and it is his/her personal responsibility to shape it in the right way and enjoy it fully. Humanists encourage positive relationships, human dignity and moral excellence while enhancing coop eration and compassion within the community. They also see the natural world as the only place where they show love and work thus setting good examples to the rest. They accept total responsibility in their course of their daily action as they struggle to survive as they enjoy the diversity around. Humanism strives to move away from religious or secular institution through a philosophy that shuns the existing traditional dogmatic authority. Characteristics of humanism include democratic, creative use science, ethical, insist that Social responsibility and liberty go hand in hand and cultivate creative and ethical living Humanist commitment is enshrined in responsible behaviours and rational thoughts which facilitate quality life in the society. They also believe that human beings and nature are inseparable though the latter is indifferent to the human existence. They also believed that living is the most significant part of life that overshadow dying and heavily contribute to overal l life purpose and meaning.On moral values, they believe that they are not products of divine revelation or a property of religious tradition and therefore must be developed by human beings through natural reasoning (Fowler 183). Understanding of the nature should thus be the guiding principle in determination/reflection of the wrong as well as right behaviours. Furthermore, they possess the faith that human being has the capacity to differentiate and choose between bad and evil without any the existence of potential incentive of reward. Humanism is based on rational philosophy which is get inspirations from art, information from science and motivation from compassion. It tries to support the affirmation of human dignity while maximising opportunity consonant and individual liberty which is tied down to planetary and social responsibility. It heavily advocate for fro extensive societal democracy and society expansion as well as social justice and human rights. Humanism is devoid of supernaturalism since it recognise human as part of nature while laying emphasis on ethical, religious, political and social values. Therefore, humanism tends to derive its life goals from human interest and needs rather than deriving them from ideological and theological abstractions and further asserts that the human destiny lie on their responsibility (Fowler 219). Humanism provides a way of living and thinking that tries
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Book Listing Website using PHP and mySQL,HTML - Literature review Example This is where a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) comes into picture. According to (ACM SIGCHI 1996), Ã¢â¬Å"Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding themÃ¢â¬ . HCI in general terms can be inferred as a mix of a discipline belonging to the field of engineering dealing with the science of design. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a kind of study which evaluates the level of ease with which a person could use the system using the attributes of practicability, intuitiveness and accuracy. A successful interface implementation depends on how well the requirements of the system are gathered in the initial phase. There are critical opinions mentioning the lack of knowledge with developers in identifying the characteristics of humans while using a system, especially a website (Lotze 2002). Reducing design costs, improving quality and the process involved are some of the research areas that are been explored in recent times. Being a subset of User Interaction, HCI involves identifying goals from the standpoint view of both the user and business and also, developing architectural prototypes that can be refined consistently. Most of the efforts that go into coding and creating designs are actually directed towards the development of HCI. In the current trend, with the emergence of cloud computing and other technical advancements, the necessity to develop a safe, useful and commercially viable website is imperative and looking forward, it stands to remain at the same cynosure. Software Development Life Cycle Software development Life Cycle (SDLC) provides an effective approach for developing a website or any kind of software. SDLC involves seven fundamental phases which enclose the entire development timeframe of the software. All these phases are equally important as faltering in any of the phase would lead to astronomical errors in all ot her subsequent phases. The phases includes, studying feasibleness, analysing requirements, designing, modelling, implementation, testing and active operation. SDLC directly relates the phases involved in the management of project with the corresponding phases of Software Development. Out of several SDLC models that are available, for a small term project of this nature, an iterative model of SDLC would be the ideal fit. Other options include the agile and waterfall model. An iterative model allows for an openness to exist between the client and the developer and also, allows for an interactive development Ã¢â¬â enabling changes to be made even in the middle of a development process. A waterfall model does not allow for the requirements to be added at a later stage as the models are based directly on the initial requirement analysis phase. In case of developing websites, requirements often keep changing and with the advancements in technologies, there is always a constant need for fine tuning the effectiveness of a website. Hence, an iterative model suits as a best model to follow for this kind of development. Additionally, the time spent in analysing the requirements would be quite minimal in an iterative model as there is this feasibility of augmenting the development process with additional requirements, if needed. So, a cost effective, minimal time consuming iterative model would suffice the demands of developing a book listing website. (Saleh 2009) Data Security and Accessibility Information security is one of the primary aspects of
Monday, January 27, 2020
Ethical Business In The Minds Of Its Customers Commerce Essay This paper aims to answer the question Has McDonalds PLC achieved its objective of being seen as an ethical business in the mind of its customers? I chose McDonalds because it is one of the biggest food outlets in the world. Over the years, it has been criticised by costumers for being unhealthy and not environmental conscious. My investigation is based on a comparison of what McDonald claims to change and to work on against the counterclaims posed by the public. In order to fortify my claim, typical case studies of how McDonald has achieved being an ethical business in the eyes of the consumer were presented and analysed. They are: Analysis of the McDonalds Beef Fries Controversy and the McDonalds Happy Meal Challenge. Other research and enquiry was done to further analyse my investigation and they include: a primary research and a secondary research .A primary research was carried out in order to seek the opinion of the people in my local community about the state MacDonalds has reached as an ethical business. To further investigate on this, a secondary research was conducted using the companys sustainable card for the year 2011 in order to determine if McDonalds is environmentally sustainable. Results gotten from this were analysed and it was observed that 60% of the people who answered the questionnaire were not satisfied with McDonald being an ethical company due to certain reasons. The remaining 40% of people wer in support of MacDonalds being ethical. In conclusion, I realised that McDonald is really not as ethical as most allegations claim. With regards to this, suggestions regarding marketing strategies, and organisational structure were given under my recommendations. With these suggestions, McDonald can indeed reach a commendable level as an ethical business someday in the future. Word count: 295 Table of content AbstractÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦..1 IntroductionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦3 Research QuestionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.3 InvestigationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦7 BodyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦8 What is ethics?8 Organisational Structure of McDonalds10 Case Studies on McDonalds as an unethical business and Counterclaims by the company as being ethical12 Result Analysis16 Conclusion18 Recommendation..19 BibliographyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦20 Appendix21 Introduction In 1937, McDonalds was started as a drive-in restaurant by two brothers, Richard and Maurice McDonald in California. From the beginning, it was making about $200,000 per annum. However, in the 1940s the company began to implement self-service policies called the Speedee system where consumers serve themselves and this boosted their annual earnings. Initially, McDonalds was designed for mass production where people line up to collect their food. During this era, food prices were relatively low and the two brothers considered service and cleanliness as the paramount factors to the success of their business. With this growing in buisness, people started showing interest in this business and wanted to take it on as a franchise. A franchise is an agreement where a business (the franchisor) sells the right to other businesses (the franchisees) allowing them to sell products or to use them to sell products or use the companys name (Dave Hall, Rob Jones. 2004. P.50) This system failed because at this point the Donald brothers were very transparent in their business dealings. In addition, this franchises formed were not able to meet up with standards set by the parent organisation. This encouraged a lot of imitators that copied their business and the format it employed. However, in the early 1990s, McDonalds was facing problems due to changing customer preferences and increasing competition. Customers were becoming increasingly health conscious and they wanted to avoid red meat and fried food. They preferred to eat at other fast food outlets that offered discounts. (Anon. 2002) As at 21 may 2012,McDonalds was ranked by the Fortune magazine (Anon, 2012) as first company in the food services making him the worlds largest fast food chain, selling primarily hamburgers, chicken, French fries and carbonated drinks and more recently salads, fruit and carrot sticks. There are McDonalds restaurants in 120 countries and territories and they serve about 54 millions of customers each day. (Anon, 2006) Such a success implies a lot of responsibilities such as finding the right management style to keep the business running a good Human Resources management in order to have the best workforce to be able to deliver good services and to satisfy the consumers. The consumers are one of the most important elements for a businesss success so there opinion should be considered. Looking at McDonalds which operates in the food industry; it has to provide food that is in respect with consumers health, culture, taste, etcÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ This aspect of the business is called Ethics which is a system of moral principles, being in the business context we talk more of Business Ethics. Business ethics could be defined as the moral values that guide the way corporations or other business make decisions (Mark S. Putnam.2002). It is at this junction, my research question: Has McDonalds PLC achieved its objective of being seen as an ethical business in the mind of its customers? comes in. I might be a bit prejudiced in my judgement and answer to this question as I have been a big fan of McDonalds right from childhood. Consequently, I have employed other sources to aid my unbiased and objective analysis of this. Over the years, there have been a lot of cases and reports presenting McDonalds as an unethical business. The question here is; how true are all these allegations which are laid against this company? Are there other perspectives as to its credibility as an ethical business and what are preferable suggestions as to how McDonald can be more ethical, if indeed they are currently considered unethical in the minds of the consumers? All these are going to be analysed in my essay bringing to the limelight both sides of the coin and critically analysing various prominent case studies such as; The McDonalds Beef Fries Controversy, and McDonalds Happy Meal Challenge. With all this in mind, conclusions as to whether McDonalds has been an ethical business will be made and preferable suggestions given as to how to boost their image. McDonalds has to portray a good image to its customers and its employees; by offering a good quality of food. This essay aims to investigate the achievement of McDonald as an ethical business over the years as well as its loyalty lies i.e., its profit or the well-being of the community and the environment at large. The problem is that on various accounts, allegations have been laid against McDonalds as an unethical business. Many ethical issues are subjective and are difficult to enforce and easy to neglect that is why I have come up with the title of Has McDonalds PLC achieved its objective of being seen as an ethical business in the mind of its customers? Investigation With regards these allegations passed on McDonalds as to not achieving the standard as an ethical business, a primary research was conducted in the form if a questionaire This was done to find out peoples opinion on this subject matter i.e; whether they think they are ethical or not. I chose a stratified sample of public, because it makes the sample more representative of the whole group. The sample is divided into segments. I therefore chose a sample of 20 people aged from 17 and plus and all of them went to different locations in the world. The questionnaire was launched on Survey Monkey (Darrell, 2012), so that everybody could fill it, and I will make the results more general. As secondary research I looked at the McDonalds Sustainability scorecard and for the year 2010 and 2011 (refer appendix 1), to look at the goals that McDonalds has set to meet in terms of ethics. These goals could be included in the questionnaire for the customers to counter or to confirm their affirmation of being ethical. I also looked for different articles and point of view about McDonalds ethics which will be used to counter McDonalds opinion about its ethics. They are: Analysis of The McDonalds Beef Fries Controversy and the McDonalds Happy Meal Challenge. Body What is Ethics? The ethics of a business depends upon the values of its employees. The ethical stance of a business is likely to be determined by the values of senior managers, directors and other important stakeholders. It will also be influenced by codes of conduct which may operate in the industry. The term ethical is used to refer to businesses which explicitly recognise the importance of social responsibility and the need to consider its actions upon stakeholders. This has led to the rise of stakeholder concept. Some businesses now take into account the needs of employees, customers, suppliers and the local community as well as shareholders when making important business decisions. The benefits of this approach might include the following: If the needs of the McDonalds employees are taken into account which is usually a higher salary they may be more motivated, more productive, more loyal, more flexible and less likely to leave. However if McDonalds chooses to focus too much on shareholder needs might find it difficult to recruit high quality staff. If businesses have a higher regard for the local community they might win their support. For example, if the local community is consulted when expansions plans are announced, there may be less resistance to the construction of new buildings. Having their regard for the local community is also likely to improve the image of the company. In this case, McDonalds could consult the local communities about the food they serve and their origin, this will make less protestations and this will give McDonalds the image of an ethical business. If the needs of customers are satisfied more effectively there is likely to be an increase in business. For example, if McDonalds deal with complaints in a friendly and supportive manner, customers are more likely to return and spread the good word. One way of considering the impact of businesses upon society is to view all the groups affected by the behaviour of a business as a stakeholders. The stakeholders in the case of McDonalds are likely to include customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, government and local communities. The following lines of my extended essay will mainly be the comparison and the analysis of some information collected from McDonalds which obviously would described itself to be an ethical against some articles found on the internet which contradicts the version of McDonalds of being ethical. While a business is considering its stakeholders, a problem could possible arise which is the ethical dilemma. Ethical dilemma is the moral decisionsÃ thatÃ have to be made when choices are equally unfavourable.Ã With McDonalds being so popular, they have to meet the demand of their patrons, but at the same time, think of ways to make more sales, cut costs, and basically maximize the profits of the firms.Ã During these processes, they face many ethical dilemmas concerning their consumers and competitors. Many Fast food restaurants serve foods that are unhealthy to a high fat content which is detrimental to the health of its loyal consumers. They are basic decisions that these fast-food restaurants like McDonalds have to make with regards to serving healthy food. Should they increase the cost of food served and provide healthy meals or serve deep-fries that can cause health hazards in the long run. Most fast-food restaurants tend to imitate menus of their competitors. For example, McDonalds started selling twisters also known as curly fries which was originally a product of AW. This food was very high in price at the expense of the consumers as it was unhealthy. This is unethical and these outlets should invest into Research and Development of new foods which would have the health of their consumers at heart rather than copying their competitors and exploiting their customers (Anon. 2008). In some cases, these Fast-food outlets tend to cut down the portions of food served. Many of McDonalds customers have noticed that the burgers are smaller (Anon,2008). Thus they are not satisfied after eating the food. The company increase the price of the food in order to meet the demands of the consumers. This will then make the consumers buy more in order to be satisfied. At this point, there is a question that comes in; Should McDonalds reduce the amount of food served at the same price in order to maintain their reputation of being honest or to increase the price to maintain their net profit and destroy the reputation as an unethical business? In order for these fast-food restaurants to be ethical, the decisions made could either be detrimental to them in terms of their profit margin although it would be to the benefit of the consumers. In this capitalist economy nowadays, which fast-food outlet is ready to suffer at the expense of their consumers? Organisational Structure of McDonalds To be able to answer if McDonalds is an ethical company in the mind of its customers I am going to look at the organisations structure of McDonalds. McDonalds Corporation franchises and operates McDonalds restaurants in the global restaurant industry. These restaurants serve menu at various price points providing value in 119 countries globally. This is due to the difference in currencies and of the consumer wealth due to the different GDP per capita of these countries as well as the varying exchange rate system. All restaurants are operated either by the Company or by franchisees, including conventional franchisees under franchise arrangements, and developmental licensees and foreign affiliated markets under license agreements (Anon, Unknown). McDonalds has a centralized organisational structure. It means that the decision making and the authority are in the hands of few persons in the McDonalds head office. The franchises around the world are dictated how to order, cook and prepare all the food from McDonalds headquarters. The headquarters also make decisions on the price at which the products have to be sold (Anon, 2012). Referring to their Global Sustainability Scorecard in the appendix 1, McDonalds claims to be an ethical business by giving back to the community and the environment by working with schools and local organisations, and by showing how it has improve his food and how it improved the working conditions at McDonalds. According to their scorecard, in the countries they operate they have been able to raise $ 170 million from all the countries through the McHappy Day (McDonald Corp. 2011) and $27 million from customer donations. I can actually say that McDonalds undertakes some actions for its community, but it does not actually say what they plan to do with the money they have raised and the reason why they raised money. McDonalds is undertaking actions to give itself an ethical image but it still uses the customers to collect funds instead of using a part of the huge profits it makes. However, it has included fruits and vegetables in its menu in their restaurants in North and South America and West Europe. This could probably mean that they are conscious that their food is healthy enough for their customers. But McDonalds could appear more ethical in the mind of its worldwide customers if it expands the new menu into the others restaurants in the world, since McDonalds has been accused by health campaigners in America and Europe of helping to cause an obesity epidemic. Case Studies on McDonalds as an unethical business as well as Counterclaims by the company as being ethical. While researching on the McDonalds ethics an article called McDonalds Beef Fries Controversy (Anon. 2002) was found where McDonalds was sued by Hindu activists in India because of the French fries that were falsely promoted to be 100% vegetarian, while there was some beef flavouring in it. This case could be classified as unethical, because McDonalds does not respect the religious values of Hindus, thus its social responsibility towards it customers is eluded. Social responsibility is the duty that a business owes those who are directly or indirectly affected by its activities. McDonalds headquarter makes most of decisions and the franchises follow the orders from the headquarters. This could lead to a problem as there might be bureaucracy and these franchises might not be honest. This affects the image of McDonald, since there is no control of what is being done in the others restaurant. Disadvantages such due to lack of centralised organisational structure could arise as there is no control of the subsidiaries. Thus, franchises have no power to make decisions without consulting the managers due to bureaucracy. McDonalds mission is to be the favourite family restaurant and it believes that this involves protecting the environment at a local and global level. McDonald strives to ensure that its operations today do not have a negative impact on the lives of the future generations. McDonalds goal is to achieve continuous environmental improvement so it complies with all current legislation and where possible, acts in anticipation of future environmental legislation McDonalds bases its environmental program around the hierarchy of Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle and are committed to continuous review, evaluation and improvement of its program. This includes targets and monitoring and reporting on progress towards meeting them. McDonalds business impacts on the environment through: -Sourcing agricultural products and other materials to serve and build its restaurants -The operation of its restaurants and administrative functions. McDonalds aim to address these impacts by: -Improving energy efficiency -Minimise impacts associated with odours, noise. Previously, there were most famous environmental issue. It was suggested that McDonalds had destroyed hundreds of acres of Brazilian rainforest to make way for large-scale cattle ranching. This not only removes a valuable natural resource, but also has an impact on global warming, as the rainforest is an essential mechanism for the absorption of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere. McDonalds also annually produces over a million tons of packaging used for just a few minutes before being discarded. Traditionally a number of ozone depleting gasses were used in polystyrene foam packaging. In the 21st century, McDonalds uses almost all recycled packaging. However, the company still faces criticism due to the amount of waste it produces. Each of McDonalds US restaurants produces 238 pounds of waste per day and each of its U.S. regional distribution centres disposes of another 900 pounds of waste per day'(Kevin Thompson. 2006). This is not only expensive to dispose of, but also difficult when considering that similar quantities of waste are being produced around the world. Aside from the pollution from factories where the food is produced, the unusable waste from nearly all the food they sell, and the massive amounts of power and energy that are required to keep all branches up and running, this corporation is destroying natural rain forests. McDonalds like to purchase their meat from privatised farms, which is not a problem in itself. The conflicts arise when these privatised farmlands are built on the land where a lush rainforest once resided. So not only is McDonalds polluting the air, but they are destroying a large part of what would help to keep clean it out. McDonalds has also been accused for internal ethical issues related to the working conditions and treatment of employees. McDonalds employs over 1 and a half million people worldwide, over half of them are under 21 years old. McDonalds has adopted age differentials between adult and younger workers, meaning that they pay most of their employees less than the normal adult minimum wage. For example, McDonalds pays some 16-year olds as little as $6.80 an hour. McDonalds employees also experience poor working conditions with discrimination, illegal working hours, and poor safety conditions (Kevin Thompson.2006). There is little that can be done about this due to the absence of trade unions, within McDonalds, to represent staff. If Milton Freemans theory of stakeholders is adopted, the needs and expectations of staff are just as important as those of customers. McDonalds employees are frequently underpaid for the amount of time that they work which often extends into illegal amounts of labour hours. The farmers from which they get their food are also generally underpaid for the amount of produce and meat which they sell to the corporation, particularly considering the cost that many of these farms have regarding the environment and health of the workers, therefore the buyer power of McDonalds constraints. Over the past 30 years McDonald has been mainly criticised over one thing: its food which is claimed to contribute to the increased-level of obesity in US and in the other developed countries. 1 in 5 adults are dangerously overweighting in the UK, while it was reported that 300,000 deaths a year in the U.S related to obesity. McDonalds has also been criticised for exploiting children with advertising, with the Happy Meals where there are toys, as well as colourful advertising campaigns and promotions in schools. The unhealthy diet of many children is contributed with these marketing tactics. Results analysis I observed that most people dont have a concise idea of what an ethical business is, thus 60% of them as shown in Fig 1 see it as unethical because they think that the food is unhealthy as it has too much fatty and oily food served and healthy food like salad are not served. The chart in Fig 2 follows up this analysis, as 50 % of people who answered this questionnaire think there are now more fruits an vegetable and the other 50% think otherwise. Results from here show that many people think that McDonald has not made a big effort to make the foods healthy as they only focus on the profit rather than the health of their customers. On the other hand, 75% of the respondents agree that, McDonalds sells food that come from sure suppliers. This is because they have read about this information in the different outlets they have been to. The other 25% think the opposite because they have seen unfit items like; human hair in fries, among others which has made them unhappy and discontent. Being more specific, I have noted that people have differents point of view on the environmental aspects of McDonalds restaurants. Looking at the diagram above, 75% of people think that most McDonalds restaurants are not ecological, because of the amount of energy that is used for the lightning, the heating, and for the different machines that are used in the food processing. They believe that they do not recycle the paper used to serve take-away food. This 75% account for people who visited McDonalds restaurants in Europe. With this questionaire, the opinions of various people where taken into consideration. However, there might have been some bias in judgement as people might like other fast-food restaurants like :Pizza Hut, Burger King, SubWay. This could have in one way affected the response given to qestions in the questionnaire. On the other hand, people given this quesstionqire might not have bee knowlegable enough as regsrd the definition and the hidden aspects of ethics. This could have led to misjudgement of Mc.Donalds as an ethical buisness. In addition, people who responded to the questionnaire have visited different oultets of Mc.Donalds, this would greatly influence their judgemnet as McDonlads is a franchise .Thus different standards might exist as they are managed by different individuals. The McDonalds in America might be different from that in theU.K , although they sell the same type of food, the managerial structure is not necessarily the sam as it is a franchise. Conclusion Looking at the analysis, made and the results gotten from the questionnaire, it can be assumed that McDonalds has failed to achieve its objective of being seen as an ethical business in the minds of its customers. Resources from the internet, journals and questionnaire have helped in examination of this question and conclusion. Articles such as ; Analysis of The McDonalds Beef Fries Controversy have shown that MacDonalds is an unethical business. In this article, McDonalds falsely marketed its fries made with beef flavouring to its Hindu customers without letting them know about the presence of beef seeing as they are vegetarians. Although, McDonalds pays their workers according to age, this often discriminatory as the duties in this outfit is not necessarily assigned according to age. This practice goes against the concept of an ideal ethical business. Through this analysis made in this essay, there is another question that could arise, which will to a deeper discussion and consistent thinking about business of nowadays, should be more carry about their stakeholders, or they should be thinking of making more profits. Recommendation Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategy could be defined as anÃ organizationsÃ strategyÃ that combines all of itsÃ marketingÃ goalsÃ into oneÃ comprehensiveÃ plan. A good marketing strategy should be drawn fromÃ market researchÃ and focus on the rightÃ product mixÃ in order toÃ achieveÃ the maximumÃ profit potentialÃ and sustain theÃ business. The marketing strategy is theÃ foundationÃ of aÃ marketing plan (Anon. 2012). While investigating we found out that McDonalds have claimed to make some changes which were not known by the customers because it has not been advertised, thus customers have kept seeing McDonalds as an unhealthy and unethical business. On this point we could recommend to McDonalds show to its customers that it has improved his menu for example. To be more efficient they should also undertake questionnaires to customers to find out what they think about them. Organisational structure Most McDonalds restaurants are franchisees and from my investigation we found that it is problem in terms of communication. When the head quarter emits new ideas or new strategy, franchisees might not apply the idea of McDonalds headquarters; therefore the franchises could give an unethical image to the customers which are probably not the aim of the head quarter. So what McDonalds could do it to ask for report from the different McDonalds restaurants in other countries of the different changes they could have decided to do. This will help McDonalds to be more concerned and involved in what is happening in these other outlets around than world. Bibliography Anon. (Unknown).Ã McDonalds Corp. Full description.Ã Available: http://in.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=MCD. Last accessed 31/10/12. Anon. (2002).Ã The McDonalds Beef Fries Controversy. Available on: http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Business%20Ethics/McDonald%20Beef%20Fries%20Controversy.htm. Last accessed 03/12/12. Anon. (2006).Ã Write a brief history of Mc Donalds .Ã Available: http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20061127061917AAo0yoo. Last accessed 04/12/12. Anon. (2006).Ã Who controls the decision making process in a franchise?.Ã Available: http://nz.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100325003603AAz89CY. Last accessed 04/12/12. Anon. (2008).Ã The Ethical Dilemmas of Fast Food Industries.Ã Available: http://www.darkztar.com/forum/showthread.php?52669-The-ethical-dilemmas-of-fast-food-industries. Last accessed 28/11/2012. Anon/2011/ 2011 McDonalds Global Sustainability Scorecard/Poster/ Available from:/ http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/sustainability/2011_sustainability_scorecard.html/ 14/08/2012 Anon. (2012).Ã Our annual ranking of Americas largest corporations.Ã Available: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2012/snapshots/2262.html. Last accessed 04/12/12 Darrell Passigue. 2012.Ã Questionnaire.Ã Available: http://fr.surveymonkey.com/MySurvey_EditorFull.aspx?sm=lfUVEfNQzdOk5wMYi2Y5467mI8nrZsagIwRrzTGL_2B2o_3D_0A. Last accessed 04/12/2012. Dave Hall, Rob Jones,CarloRaffo. (2004). Business Organisations in the Private Sector. In: Ian Chambers and Dave GrayÃ Business Studies. p50. Kevin Thompson. (2006).Ã Ethical Criticism of McDonalds.Ã Available: http://voices.yahoo.com/ethical-criticism-mcdonalds-147813.html?cat=3. Last accessed 04/12/12. Mark S. Putnam. (2002).Ã Ethical Values for Business Success.Ã Available: http://www.globalethicsuniversity.com/articles/valuesforsuccess.htm. Last accessed 21 Nov. 2012. Marketing strategy definition.Ã Available: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/marketing-strategy.html. Last accessed 02/12/2012.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The longest journey, is the journey of self discovery. To discover ones self, a person must confront things they would rather not and be truthful to themselves. Both characters, Macbeth from William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Tragedy of Macbeth, and Holden from J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Catcher in the Rye, embarked on a inward journey of self discovery.Through being emotionally unstable, having contradicting morals, and discovering who they truly are, it is evident that though two different outcomes, they both had a journey of self discovery. Unlike Holden, Macbeth was very emotionally stable at the beginning. He was respected, a devoted husband and a loyal subject to his king. Despite the fact he was so stable at the beginning, Macbeth quickly lost control of his emotions when the three witches confronted him with the three prophecies, which ultimately let the emotions of greed and guilt come over him from the immoral actions he committed In comparison, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional stability was very flaky during the beginning of the novel, but gradually improved during his journey. Holden was very depressed because of the loneliness and isolation he felt, which was ultimately is own fault. From his journey, he slowly started to gain control of his emotions and accepted the truth of his mental illness. He transformed himself completely, and ultimately gained control of himself by finally reaching out for professional help. Holden went from being very angry and upset to accepting his faults and changing his life around. Holden and Macbeth both had morals, but where HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s stayed genuine and true, MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s fell apart. At the beginning, Macbeth was repulsed by the thought of killing the King, but by the end, he was murdering everyone his way. It was LM who first triggered MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s moral down fall, but Macbeth was the one to completely diregard them. Macbeth had control of his morals but ultimately c hose to go against them to get what he wanted, power. His disregard is clear when he made the decision to kill Banquo because he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to lose his power to BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s descendants and he was starting to become suspicious. Unlike MB HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s morals were challenged multiple times but he over came theÃ obstacles. Yet the driving force behind much of his decision making is a sense of morals that is at times twisted but is always present. One of HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s main concerns is the fact that the world around him appears to be losing its morality and the people are all phony, all incapable of following the moral code that Holden insists on placing on those around him. He is worried about even the smallest things like the foul language scrawled on the walls at the museum. The title of the book reflects his desire to be the catcher in the rye, to prevent children from running over the edge of the field and hurting themselves. So despite his inability to recognize morality in others, like Mr. Antolini, somewhere inside Holden there is a deep sense of morals and a strong desire not just to follow them but to have others follow them as well. Macbeth and Holden both embarked on a journey of self discovery, where they discovered who they truly were. Macbeth discovered the horror of the crimes he comitted and that the power he was once thought was everything, actually meant nothing.Macbeth started off with an abundance of friends, however, he ended with a whole bunch of enemies. Though he only came to realize it at the end of the play, his actions destroyed his respect and honour and led to his death bed. Before he was killed, Macbeth had reflected on his life, and he started to understand the full extent of what he did and the consequences his actions were going to have.Unlike Macbeth, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s journey lead to a positive ending where he accepted himself and started on the road to recovery. Throughout the entire novel, it was evident that Holden was very depressed. He had no hope for his future, as he expressed to his history teaher Mr. Spencer, and he believed he was headed no where in life. Holden was kicked out of numerous schools and it was not until after his New York adventure that he went on an unitentional road of self-discovery. Holden was clearly in pain over his brothers death, pain that he was yet to deal with. As the book progressed, Holden gradually matured into a strong and indepent individual. He developed stronger relationships with Phoebe, his brother DB and a few others like Jane, and he finally allowed himself to accept his faults and accept the reality that no one is perfect. His breakdown turnedÃ into a major breakthrough, which changed his life in a positive way. Macbeth and Holden both discovered who they truly were, one greedy and power seeking, and the other a strong and indepent person who had to deal with a great loss. Both The Tradgey of Macbeth and The Catcher in the Rye tell a story of great self discovery. Macbeth from good to evil, and Holden bad to good. Through their emoitional stability, contradicting their moral values, and discovering who they truly are, shows the way Holden and Macbeth changed through both the novels.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
The structured interview, also known as the formal or questionnaire interview, involves a face-to-face or alternatively an over-the-phone delivery of a questionnaire. Structured interviews use a pre-set list of questions designed by the researcher and asked to all interviewees in the same way, this is know as an interview schedule. Interviewees then choose from a list of set answers, allowing structured interviews to be relatively quick. Structured interviews have various advantages, therefore, some sociologists, mainly Positivist sociologists, choose to use structured interviews when conducting research. Positivists go by the assumption that there is a measurable objective social reality. They take a scientific approach using methods such as structured interviews to obtain quantitative data. Positivists are mainly interested in research methods that achieve their main goals of reliability, generalisability and representativeness, for this reason, they favour structured interviews as they achieve these goals. This is because structured interviews have close-ended questions and answers that are standardised, counted and quantified; they are reliable because they can be therefore replicated. Positivist sociologists also prefer to use structured interviews when conducting research because the pre-coded responses mean that produce quantitative data, can allow cause-and-effect relationships can be established. Thus, structured interviews are preferred by positivists. Also, structured interviews are representative and can therefore be generalised, because of the fact that they are often large-scale. There are also practical advantages to using structured interviews. For an example, training interviewers is relatively easy and inexpensive as no specialist skills have to be taught as the questions tend to be very straightforward as they often close-ended, and do not require too much thought. Due to the fact that skills taught are minimal, the process of training interviewers will not cost too much. This brings a huge practical advantage for sociologists of structured interviews being low cost. Another practical advantage is that structured interviews are relatively cheap, quick and easy to administer. This enables sociologists to use aÃ larger sample in the interview process, allowing more representative results to be produced. Therefore, the researcher can make generalisations. No only this, but structured interviews have a higher response rate, than mailed questionnaires for example, further improving and reinforcing the representative advantage of structured interviews. Furthermore, face to face interviews ensure a much higher response rate than mailed questionnaires for example, due to the fact that the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s presence means that the research purpose and importance can be explained to potential interviewees, allowing them to understand how valuable it is that their response is correct and true, thus increasing validity- an important advantage for sociologists. Finally interviewer effect occurs when the interviewerÃ¢â¬â¢s presence affects the intervieweeÃ¢â¬â¢s responses, in turn reducing validity. However, the advantage with structured interviews is that the interviewer effect with be much less than with unstructured, open-ended unstructured interviews. This is due to the fact that in structured interviews contact is restricted to asking and responding fixed list of questions and close-ended answers. All points considered there are a number of advantages for sociologists in using structured interviews in their research. However, in saying this, it can also be argued that there are a also number of disadvantages. For example, it can be said that there is a lack of validity as the researcher decides the questions in advance, a lack of reliability as interviewer effect may influence answers, a cost issue due to training and ignorance towards sensitive issues as deadpan manner may be quite off-putting and there is a lack of rapport. In my opinion, it all depends on whether you are a positivist or an interpretivist. Yes, there are some disadvantages, but I believe that these disadvantages are extremely outweighed by number of advantages that exist for sociologists in using structured interviews in their research.